Spindle Neurons

also known as von Economo neurons (VENs) from Constantin von Economo’s 1926 discovery.  They are fast and large for fast relay of social interconnectedness.  They have only been found in a handful of species outside of humans which include, whales, dolphins, elephants and monkeys.  They are thought to play a role in intuition and social interactions. They are more developed in species with complex social systems.  They have been found in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the fronto-insular cortex (FI) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC).